CPRS Polls - Survey Research Unit
Public Opinion Poll #16
Armed Attacks, Negotiations, Jenin Proposal, Elections, Economic Situation, and the Palestinian-Jordanian Relations, March 16-18, 1995
Armed Attacks

A total of 44% respondents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip opposed armed attacks, compared with 33% who supported them and 23% who declared that they had no opinion on the topic. Although some respondents were simply unsure of their opinion on this issue, there were fieldworkers who reported that some of the respondents choosing "no opinion" were afraid to answer the question or remarked on the question's sensitivity, implying that support for these attacks may actually be higher than the results indicate. In the February poll, the percentage of respondents supporting such attacks was 46%, with opposition standing at 33%. This might be attributed to the fact that the Beit Lid attack had an influence on the increase in support for attacks, especially since it came after increased frustrations over settlement expansion, which decreased with the passing of time and the inability of these attacks to achieve positive results. Also, the closure and the economic hardship which followed the Beit Lid attack may have caused some Palestinians to reconsider their position. (See Chart 3) There was no noticeable difference between the West Bank and Gaza Strip in this regard. There is a direct relationship between education and support for these attacks where the percentage of support is higher among the educated groups than among those with the least education. Also, percentage of support among those with university degrees is higher than the percentage of opposition, which is not true for the general population. (See Table 13)

Table 13

Attitude Towards Armed Attacks by Education

                                Support %    Oppose %         No Opinion %        
Up to 9 years                    26.8         50.6               22.6                
Tawjihi (9-12 years)             35.7         38.4               25.7                
2-year college                   40.9         32.1               27.0                
University Degree(s)             47.0         35.2               17.8                

Support for these attacks is higher among men than among women (See Table 14) and is higher in refugee camps than in other areas.

Table 14

Attitude Towards Armed Operations by Gender

                         Support %       Oppose %             No Opinion %         
Male                        35.0          42.1                 22.9                 
Female                      30.4          44.7                 25.0                 

Also we find that the percentage of support for these attacks among students is higher than the percentage of opposition. The same is true for employees. (See Table 15)

Table 15

Attitude Towards Armed Operations by Occupation

                     Support %            Oppose %             No Opinion %         
Students                    51.2          28.1                 20.7                 
Waged Laborers              35.8          37.2                 27.0                 
Housewives                  28.0          47.9                 24.1                 
Employees                   39.4          36.9                 23.7                 
Merchants                   34.9          41.6                 23.5                 
Farmers                     25.0          49.9                 25.1                 
Craftspeople                24.5          48.8                 26.7                 
Professionals               38.3          42.6                 19.1                 
Unemployed                  38.7          43.0                 18.3                 
Retired                     27.8          33.3                 38.9                 

Single respondents were more supportive of these attacks than married respondents. Support is also higher among youths. (See Table 16)

Table 16

Attitude Towards Armed Attacks by Marital Status

                        Support %          Oppose %            No Opinion %         
Single                        36.2         35.2                28.7                 
Married                       32.4         45.2                22.4                 

Although support is high among opposition groups, it is not insignificant among supporters of Fateh.

Table 17

Attitude Towards Armed Attacks by Political Affiliation (Selected Groups)

                     Support %            Oppose %             No Opinion %         
Fateh                       25.0          55.4                 19.7                 
Hamas                       60.4          20.1                 19.5                 
Islamic Jihad               61.3          25.8                 12.9                 
DFLP                        28.6          42.9                 28.6                 
PFLP                        52.9          31.4                 15.7                 
Islamic Inds.               25.8          38.7                 35.5                 
Nationalist Inds.           40.0          40.0                 20.0                 

Support for armed attacks is higher in the areas of Bethlehem, Nablus, Hebron, Gaza North, and Gaza South than in the other areas. (See Table 18)

Table 18

Attitude Towards Armed Attacks by Area of Residence

                     Support %            Oppose %             No Opinion %         
Nablus                      33.3          47.7                 18.9                 
Tulkarm                     26.1          44.3                 29.5                 
Jenin                       25.8          50.6                 23.6                 
Jericho                     24.0          36.0                 40.0                 
Ramallah                    28.8          41.4                 29.7                 
Hebron                      36.0          42.6                 21.4                 
Bethlehem                   40.5          29.7                 29.7                 
Jerusalem                   35.5          34.2                 30.3                 
Gaza North                  38.6          47.1                 14.3                 
Gaza City                   32.2          49.7                 18.1                 
Gaza Middle                 31.4          39.3                 29.3                 
Gaza South                  40.0          40.0                 20.0                 

Extending the Palestinian Authority to Jenin

Most Palestinians (52%) oppose the proposal to extend the Palestinian Authority to Jenin before other areas. Opposition to this suggestion is higher in the Gaza Strip than in the West Bank. Jenin is no different in its level of support for this idea than other areas of the West Bank. (See Table 19)

Table 19 Attitude Towards Jenin Proposal by Area of Residence

                     Support %            Oppose %             No Opinion %         
Nablus                      42.3          44.1                 13.5                 
Tulkarm                     36.7          51.1                 12.2                 
Jenin                       38.2          51.1                 12.2                 
Jericho                     45.8          50.0                 04.2                 
Ramallah                    33.3          46.8                 19.8                 
Hebron                      39.6          47.0                 13.5                 
Bethlehem                   29.3          49.3                 21.3                 
Jerusalem                   27.6          56.6                 15.8                 
Gaza North                  31.4          57.1                 11.4                 
Gaza City                   23.1          64.7                 12.1                 
Gaza Middle                 25.9          46.0                 28.1                 
Gaza South                  16.0          64.0                 20.0                 

We find that opposition to the proposal is higher among men than women and in the cities than in villages and camps. (See Table 20)

Table 20

Attitude Towards Jenin Proposal by Place of Residence

                      Support %             Oppose %              No Opinion %          
City                          31.5          55.3                  13.3                  
Town                          40.1          47.3                  12.6                  
Village                       33.8          49.9                  12.3                  
Refugee Camp                  29.4          51.8                  18.8                  

Also, opposition to the proposal is higher than support among all political factions. (See Table 21)

Table 21

Attitude Towards Jenin Proposal by Political Affiliation (Selected Groups)

                     Support %            Oppose %             No Opinion %         
Fateh                       39.8          47.8                 12.4                 
Hamas                       22.8          63.5                 13.7                 
Islamic Jihad               29.0          64.8                 06.2                 
DFLP                        16.6          50.1                 33.3                 
PFLP                        22.9          61.4                 15.8                 
Islamic Inds.               29.7          59.2                 11.2                 
Nationalist Inds.           23.5          66.6                 10.0                 

The Economic Situation

Most Palestinians (53%) declared that their economic situation had deteriorated since the peace process and Oslo Agreement, compared with 36% who believed that their economic situation has remained the same and only 8% who believe that their situation has improved. Although there is no difference between the West Bank and Gaza in the percentage of respondents whose economic condition has deteriorated, more respondents in Gaza declare that their situation has improved than in the West Bank. If we compare these percentages with the expectations expressed in the June 1994 poll, we find a large gap, where 36% expected that their economic situation would improve as a result of the peace process and only 13% expected that it would deteriorate. Residents of Gaza South and Hebron are more likely to feel that their economic situation has deteriorated. (See Table 22)

Table 22

View of Economic Situation by Area of Residence

                 Better %         Worse %       No Change %        No Opinion %      
Nablus                05.4        46.4          43.8               04.5              
Tulkarm               04.4        55.6          37.8               02.2              
Jenin                 03.3        56.7          40.0               ---               
Jericho               04.0        56.0          40.0               ---               
Ramallah              01.8        37.8          58.6               01.8              
Hebron                04.1        66.1          26.7               03.1              
Bethlehem             05.3        60.0          32.0               02.7              
Jerusalem             02.6        38.2          55.3               03.9              
Gaza North            18.6        61.4          18.6               01.4              
Gaza City             17.9        49.7          29.5               02.9              
Gaza Middle           14.3        50.0          30.7               05.0              
Gaza South            08.0        68.0          24.0               ---               

The poll shows that the perception of economic deterioration is higher among the least educated and decreases with education. (See Table 23)

Table 23

View of Economic Situation by Education

                      Better %      Worse %       No Change %       No Opinion %      
up to 9 years             08.8      58.8          30.0              02.4              
9-12 years                07.4      48.7          41.8              02.2              
2-year college            10.0      45.5          40.9              03.6              
University degree(s)      08.0      38.9          49.3              03.8              

We find that married respondents are more likely to perceive that their economic situation has deteriorated than single respondents. (See Table 24)

Table 24

View of Economic Situation by Marital Status

                 Better %         Worse %        No Change %       No Opinion %      
Single                05.7        44.7           47.1              02.5              
Married               08.5        55.5           33.7              02.3              

The feeling of economic deterioration is widespread among all factions, but supporters of Hamas and other opposition groups are more likely to express such a perception. (See Table 25)

Table 25

View of Economic Situation by Political Affiliation (Selected Groups)

                   Better %        Worse %        No Change %      No Opinion %      
Fateh                   11.4       47.6           39.7             01.2              
Hamas                   03.2       70.5           24.3             02.1              
Islamic Jihad           12.6       58.0           25.1             04.2              
DFLP                    05.6       60.9           33.6             ---               
PFLP                    13.3       56.5           30.2             ---               
Islamic Inds.           ---        57.4           40.8             01.8              
Nationalist Inds.       04.9       44.5           40.6             10.0              

Palestinian National Authority

The poll results showed that 37% evaluate the performance of the Palestinian National Authority as "excellent" or "good", whereas 30% said that it was "fair" and 17% declared that it was "weak" or "bad."

N.B. "Fair" in this context has the connotation of neither good nor bad, not the connotation of "just." The actual Arabic word is ãÊæÓØ(mutawassit) which is literally "middle." Those interested in comparing these results with previous results should be advised that in the last poll, the same word was translated as "average," although it had been rendered in previous polls as "fair." CPRS believes that "fair" is a better translation, as long as it is not mistakenly understood as "just."

Positive evaluation of the PNA's performance is higher in Gaza than in the West Bank. Also, when compared with the results of the poll we conducted in December 1994, there is a general increase in the positive evaluation of the PNA where the percentage of those who declared at that time that the performance was "excellent" or "good" was 31% compared with 37% now. (See Table 26) With the exception of Fateh supporters, the largest percentage of supporters of each political group chose "fair."

Table 26

Evaluation of the PNA by Political Affiliation (Selected Groups)

                 Excellent %   Good %    Fair %   Weak %    Bad %     Don't Know %    
Fateh                20.0      33.1      26.7     06.4      03.0      10.7            
Hamas                06.7      09.1      33.3     13.9      18.2      18.8            
Islamic Jihad        03.2      16.1      25.8     22.6      19.4      12.9            
DFLP                 09.5      23.8      33.3     09.5      19.0      04.8            
PFLP                 03.9      19.6      25.5     21.6      21.6      07.8            
Islamic Inds.        06.5      09.7      45.2     09.7      06.5      22.6            
Nat'list Inds.       01.7      15.0      41.7     18.3      11.7      11.7            

Positive evaluation of the PNA is more widespread among non-refugees than among refugees. (See Table 27)

Table 27

Evaluation of the PNA by Refugee Status

            Excellent   Good %      Fair %      Weak %      Bad %       Don't       
            %                                                           Know %      
Refugee        12.8     20.8        32.7        10.8        08.9        14.0        
Non-refuge     15.0     25.2        26.8        07.7        07.9        17.4        
e                                                                                   

Election for PNA President

The percentage of support for Yassir Arafat this month was 56.5%, compared with 53.4% last month. Support for Ahmed Yassin and George Habash declined compared with last month. Support for Hayder Abdel Shafi declined slightly. (See Table 28) This poll confirms that the percentage of support for Arafat is higher in the Gaza Strip than in the West Bank, whereas support for Yassin is roughly equal in the two areas (with a slightly more in the West Bank).

Table 28

Comparison of PNA President Election Results

               Arafat %    Yassin %     Abdel Shafi %     Habash %       Other %     
Nov 1994         44.2      19.7         08.9              06.8           20.4        
Dec 1994         48.5      18.4         08.6              05.8           18.7        
Feb 1995         53.4      14.6         10.0              03.6           18.4        
Mar 1995         56.5      13.5         07.6              03.2           19.2        

Despite the fact that we do not question respondents concerning their motives for choosing their candidates, the percentages might be a function of the following: 1) Fateh is the group with the most support, and we find that most Fateh supporters cast their vote for Yassir Arafat. 2) The question deals with elections for the PNA, which has already been established, and some supporters of opposition groups consider the question inappropriate since they intend to boycott such elections. 3) The choices offered are limited despite the fact that respondents have the option of choosing "other." Therefore, the percentages should be understood as relative popularity rather than absolute popularity. Arafat has a slight advantage because of being the incumbent and PLO Chairman, and having the highest name recognition value. Some fieldworkers report that many people, while severely critical of Arafat's policies, vote for him nonetheless. To many, he still symbolizes the Palestinian search for identity and statehood. Ahmed Yassin is not perceived as an official leader, but rather as a figurehead, by some of the population, including Hamas supporters. The fact that he is currently imprisoned by the Israelis may also make some of the population unlikely to consider voting for him as a realistic choice. Hayder Abdel Shafi was not as well known, even among the educated, until his role in the negotiations. Also, he has declared that he will not run for election. George Habash has been outside of the West Bank and Gaza for a long time and also suffers from illness. Support for Abdel-Shafi increases with education, while support for Arafat is highest among those with no more than 9 years of education. As shown in Table 2, 80% of the respondents have no more than 12 years of education. All of these factors give, in the question and in reality, Arafat an advantage over the other candidates and may influence the choices of respondents.

Ahmed Yassin received his highest support in the Hebron area as 21% of the respondents chose him as PNA president. In the rest of the sample, he received around 13%. Yassir Arafat, despite winning the majority of the votes in Hebron (51%), got a percentage that is less than his average. In Ramallah, he received 38% of the vote and in Jerusalem he received 46% of the vote. George Habash received his highest support in the Hebron area (5.3%) compared with 1.8% in the other areas of the West Bank. Hayder Abdel Shafi had no noticeable difference in his level of support. (See Table 29)

Table 29

Election of PNA President by Area of Residence

              Yassin%      Arafat %       Abdel Shafi%   Habash %     Other %         
Nablus           11.7      66.7           05.4           00.9         15.3            
Tulkarm          17.0      54.5           11.4           03.4         13.6            
Jenin            08.3      75.0           06.0           ---          10.7            
Jericho          08.0      60.0           04.0           04.0         24.0            
Ramallah         13.5      37.8           10.8           02.7         35.1            
Hebron           20.5      47.4           08.6           05.3         18.2            
Bethlehem        13.3      50.7           06.7           01.3         28.0            
Jerusalem        14.5      46.1           05.3           01.3         32.9            
Gaza N.          08.6      48.6           08.6           14.3         20.0            
Gaza City        14.0      64.0           05.8           02.9         13.4            
Gaza Mid.        13.6      63.6           07.9           00.7         14.3            
Gaza S.          12.0      50.0           08.0           04.0         26.0            

As expected, support for Arafat came primarily from Fateh supporters. (See Table 30)

Table 30

Election of PNA President by Political Affiliation (Selected Groups)

              Yassin %   Arafat %   Abdel Shafi %  Habash %         Other %         
Fateh           02.1     85.8       05.9           00.2             06.1            
Hamas           70.6     12.3       03.7           ---              13.5            
Is. Jihad       51.6     22.6       06.5           03.2             16.1            
DFLP            14.3     33.3       09.5           09.5             33.3            
PFLP            02.0     15.7       07.8           68.6             05.9            
Is. Inds        22.6     25.8       12.9           ---              38.7            
Nat'l Inds.     06.7     36.7       41.7           ---              15.0            

As shown in Table 31, support for both Ahmed Yassin and George Habash decreases with age.

Table 31

Election of PNA President by Age

              Yassin %     Arafat %    Abdel Shafi %     Habash %       Other %       
18-22            18.9      54.6        06.6              03.6           16.3          
23-26            20.0      55.5        07.8              05.3           11.3          
27-30            13.7      56.3        08.3              04.5           17.3          
31-35            10.5      57.9        06.9              05.1           19.7          
36-42            11.8      57.7        10.4              01.7           18.4          
43-50            13.1      58.1        04.5              01.8           22.5          
51+              07.8      55.9        07.0              00.8           28.6          

Elections

Most respondents (75%) chose general political elections as the preferred means to select the members of the PISGA Council. A further 20% chose appointments, whether by the PLO leadership or by the leadership of the various factions on a quota basis. Support for elections increases with education, while the opposite is true for appointments, as shown in Table 32.

Table 32

Attitude Towards Method of PISGA Selection by Education

                  PLO Appt. %      Appt. by Factions %     Elections %    Other %     
up to 9 years          17.3        06.1                    69.5           07.0        
9-12 years             14.1        04.4                    78.9           02.7        
2-yr college           08.0        03.2                    86.4           02.4        
bachelor's             03.3        08.9                    84.0           03.8        
grad. degree(s)        09.5        09.5                    71.4           09.5        

As for participation in elections, 74% of the respondents declared that they intend to participate in the elections. The majority of the supporters of all political groups intend to participate in elections. (See Table 33)

Table 33

Attitude Towards Election Participaton by Political Affiliation

                              Yes %            No %             Not Sure %          
DFLP                               74.9        22.4             02.7                
PPP                                94.3        05.7             ---                 
Fateh                              84.0        07.8             08.2                
PFLP                               77.1        08.4             14.5                
Hamas                              62.1        27.0             10.9                
Feda                               100.0       ---              ---                 
Islamic Jihad                      70.7        10.5             18.9                
Islamic Independents               70.3        22.2             07.5                
Nationalist Independents           86.1        08.9             04.9                

Political Affiliation

We notice that support for Fateh is consistent in comparison with last month where it was 49.5%, after an increase in recent months. As for the opposition factions (Hamas, Islamic Jihad, PFLP, and DFLP), we notice a continuing decrease in their popularity, especially among the leftist groups. The collective popularity for opposition groups does not exceed 20%, compared with 29% in November of 1993. The decline in support for the opposition extends to include groups that usually are the most supportive of the opposition groups. Among students, we find that support for the opposition dropped from 31% in December of 1994 to around 24% in both February and March 1995. The results of this poll confirmed what we found in previous polls, that support for Islamicist groups is higher among women than men. The same applies to PPP. As for Fateh and the PFLP, support for these groups is higher among men than women. Among those with bachelor's degrees, support for the opposition declined from 31% to 16.3%. At the same time, we notice a 10% increase in support for Fateh among this group. Opposition groups received their highest level of support in Hebron, where 31.2% of the respondents support the opposition, compared with 17% in the rest of the West Bank. (See Table 34)

Table 34

Political Affiliation by Place of Residence

          PPP %  Hamas %   Fateh %  Is.       DFLP %   PFLP %  Feda %  Is     Nat    Other   No one   
                                    Jihad %                            Ind    Ind %  %       %        
                                                                       %.                             
Nablus     ---   11.0      59.6     01.8      01.8     00.9    ---     01.8   07.3   02.8    12.8     
T'lkrm    01.1   13.5      51.7     04.5      03.4     02.2    01.1    04.5   02.2   02.2    13.5     
Jenin     01.1   06.8      65.9     01.1      01.1     01.1    ---     02.3   04.5   03.4    12.5     
Jericho    ---   04.0      56.0     ---       ---      08.0    ---     ---    04.0   12.0    16.0     
Ram.'h    00.9   12.0      28.7     00.9      01.9     01.9    00.9    01.9   06.5   29.6    14.8     
Hebron    00.8   18.0      40.2     06.1      02.8     04.3    00.3    04.4   06.4   02.8    13.0     
B'hem     01.4   06.8      41.9     02.7      02.7     ---     ---     06.8   08.1   12.2    17.6     
J'salem    ---   10.5      34.2     03.9      03.9     01.3    ---     02.6   06.6   22.4    14.5     
Gaza N     ---   14.3      44.3     ---       ---      18.6    ---     01.4   01.4   11.4    08.6     
Gaza C    00.6   16.2      56.1     01.2      ---      02.9    ---     01.2   01.2   05.2    15.6     
Gaza M    00.7   12.9      58.3     00.7      ---      00.7    00.7    00.7   03.6   09.4    12.2     
Gaza S    02.0   14.0      40.0     02.0      04.0     08.0    ---     04.0   ---    20.0    06.0     

N: North; C: City; M: Middle; S: South
Focus on Hebron

This poll included 284 respondents from Hebron from 16 different areas. After studying the results, we can draw the following conclusions:

Similarities:

-Contrary to popular belief and our previous findings, support for unity with Jordan (whether complete or confederation) is less in Hebron than in the rest of the West Bank. However, support for this idea remains high in Nablus and Jericho.

-With regard to view of the future, Hebron is not very different from other areas of the West Bank. However, there is an increase in both optimism and pessimism than in other areas, meaning that fewer respondents chose "not sure."

-Support for armed attacks in Hebron is not higher than average. In fact, opposition to these attacks is slightly higher in the Hebron area than in the rest of the West Bank and Gaza.

-There is no significant difference between Hebron and the rest of the West Bank concerning views of the PNA.

Differences:

-Opposition to continuing negotiations in Hebron is higher than in other areas .

-With regard to the Jenin proposal, the Hebron area gave it the most support and the least opposition.

-There is a great difference between Hebron and the rest of the West Bank and Gaza when examining the economic situation as 66% of the residents in Hebron felt that their economic situation had deteriorated, compared with 53% in the general sample and 49% in the rest of the West Bank.

-Ahmed Yassin and opposition groups received their highest level of support in Hebron.

-Support for elections and participation in them is higher in Hebron than in other areas.


Appendix

                                              Total  West Bank Gaza
*Unemployment rate                             38.0%   35.0%   43.0% 
1. With regard to future Palestinian-Jordanian relations, I support the establishment of... 
a. two independent states                      65.8%   62.3%   71.6% 
b. complete unity between Palestine            15.4%   17.5%   12.0%
and Jordan.
c. confederation between Palestine             13.9%   14.5%   12.9%
and Jordan.
d. Other (specify)                             04.9%   05.7%   03.5%
2. Given the political and economic circumstances here, and the Palestinian-
Israeli negotiations, are you optimistic or pessimistic about the future?
a. Optimistic                                  49.1%   46.0%   54.2% 
b. Pessimistic                                 31.9%   34.9%   26.9%
c. Not Sure                                    19.0%   19.1%   18.9% 
3. Do you support the continuation of the current peace negotiations between 
the PLO and Israel?
a. Yes                                         66.6%   65.2%   69.0%
b. No                                          21.4%   22.2%   19.9%
c. No opinion                                  12.0%   12.6%   11.1% 
4. With regard to armed attacks against Israeli targets, I... 
a. support them                                32.5%   31.7%   33.8% 
b. oppose them                                 43.5%   42.7%   44.7%
c. have no opinion                             24.0%   25.6%   21.5% 
5. With regard to the Israeli proposal to give the Palestinian Authority 
municipal and economic authority in Jenin (before the other areas of the 
West Bank) I...
a. support it                                  32.4%   37.2%   24.5% 
b. oppose it                                   52.0%   48.8%   57.4%
c. have no opinion                             15.6%   14.0%   18.1% 
6. Following the peace process and implementation of autonomy in Gaza and 
Jericho, my economic situation and standard of living has...
a. improved                                    08.4%   03.9%   15.7%
b. worsened                                    52.7%   52.0%   53.8%
c. stayed the same                             36.4%   41.8%   27.5%
d. don't know                                  02.5%   02.3%   03.0% 
7. What is your evaluation of the performance of the Palestinian National 
Authority?
a. Excellent                                   14.0%   11.8%   17.6% 
b. Good                                        23.2%   23.6%   22.4%
c. Fair (see note p.17)                        29.5%   26.9%   33.7%
d. Weak                                        09.1%   09.3%   08.8%
e. Bad                                         08.3%   07.3%   09.9%
f. Don't Know                                  15.9%   21.1%   07.6%
8. If an independent election to choose the president of the Palestinian
Authority takes place and the following nominate themselves, you will choose:
a. Ahmed Yassin                                13.5%   14.0%   12.7% 
b. Yassir Arafat                               56.5%   54.6%   59.7%
c. Hayder Abdel Shafi                          07.6%   07.8%   07.2%
d. George Habash                               03.2%   02.5%   04.2%
e. Other (Specify)                             19.2%   21.1%   16.2%
9. In your opinion, the best way to choose the members of the "Palestinian 
Council" of the Palestinian Interim Self-Governing Authority is...
a. Appointment by PLO leadership               14.0%   12.4%   16.6% 
b. Appointment by political groups             05.6%   05.0%   06.5% 
on a quota basis.
c. Political Elections 75.4% 77.6% 71.8% d. Other 05.0% 05.0% 05.1%
10. Will you participate in general political elections to choose the members of the PISGA Council?
a. Yes                                         74.1%   77.4%   68.8% 
b. No                                          14.1%   14.1%   14.1%
c. Not sure                                    11.8%   08.5%   17.1%
11. If elections were to be held today, and you decided to participate, you 
would vote for candidates affiliated with:
a. DFLP                                        01.6%   02.3%   00.5% 
b. PPP                                         00.7%   00.8%   00.7%
c. Fateh                                       49.5%   47.3%   52.9%
d. PFLP                                        03.6%   02.5%   05.3%
e. Hamas                                       12.4%   11.1%   14.5%
f. Feda                                        00.3%   00.4%   00.2%
g. Islamic Jihad                               02.1%   02.8%   00.9%
h. Islamic independents                        02.4%   03.0%   01.4%
i. Nationalist independents                    04.4%   06.0%   01.8%
j. Other (specify)                             10.0%   10.4%   09.2%
k. None of the above                           13.0%   13.4%   12.6% 

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